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%keywordstyle=\color{blue},commentstyle=\color{commentgreen},
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\begin{document}
\title{SciDetect{\huge\texttrademark} Documentation
\\
\url{http://scidetect.forge.imag.fr}}
\author{
Nguyen Minh Tien \\
\texttt{Minh-Tien.nguyen@imag.fr}\\
%\and
Cyril Labb\'e \\
\texttt{first.last@imag.fr}\\
}
\date{March 2015}
%\title{\color{red}Practical Typesetting}
%\author{\color{blue}Name\\ Work}
%\date{\color{green}December 2005}
\maketitle
\begin{table}[ht]
\caption*{Revision History}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|r|}
\hline
\hline
Version & Date & Author & Comment \\ [0.5ex]
\hline
1.4 & 13-02-2015 & MT & Initial deployment \\
1.41 & 17-02-2015 & MT & Added support for XML and XTX \\
2.0 & 25-02-2015 & MT & Added multiple configurable parameters \\
2.1 & 09-03-2015 & MT & Separated text and corpus class\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\label{table:nonlin}
\end{table}
\tableofcontents
\newpage
\section{Installation-Requirements-Quick start}
\paragraph{Installation}
A stand-alone Java program, the documentation and the source code are available at the following URL:
\url{http://scidetect.forge.imag.fr}
\paragraph{Requirements}
The stand-alone Java program requires {\tt Java SE 6} or higher. It is also using an additional libraries for pdf converter (should be included in the {\tt lib/} directory).
\paragraph{Quick start}
The runnable program for the SciDetect software is packaged inside:
\begin{lstlisting}
SciDetect_Local.jar
\end{lstlisting}
The following are needed :
\begin{itemize}
\item The configuration file ({\tt config.txt})
\item The samples directory directories ({\tt data})
\end{itemize}
\section{Usage}
\subsection{Command line client}
SciDetect program is included in a runnable JAR file. The program is started by invoking:
\begin{lstlisting}
$java -jar SciDetect_Local.jar <parameters>
\end{lstlisting}
Where {\tt <parameters>} stands for a combination of one or more of
the following command line options:
\begin{itemize}
\item[] {\tt -c <path\_to\_check>} gives the path to the directory containing the files to be checked;
\item[] {\tt -l <log\_filename>} gives the name of the log file (defaults to {\tt /logs/start\_time.xls});
\item[] {\tt -d} Save detail log (optional, default false).
\item[] {\tt -h} Show usage.
\end{itemize}
Typical use:
\begin{lstlisting}[language=sh]
$java -jar SciDetect_Local.jar -c /tien/Test_demo -l /tien/Test_log.xls -d
\end{lstlisting}
\subsection{Supported file types}
At version 2.1 {\tt SciDetect\_Local} currently supports .PDF and two specific Springer xml format namely
{\tt .XML} for {\tt A++} format
{\tt .XTX} for PDF extraction of PDF files
\section{Configuration}
A configuration file ({\tt config.txt}) should be accessible by the program. It should be found in the same directory with the {\tt SciDetect\_Local.jar}. The config file contains following information:
\subsection{Path to sample folder}
\begin{lstlisting}[language=bash]
# Where samples can be found
samples data/samples
\end{lstlisting}
This is used to set the directory where samples of texts produced by known generators can be found. This directory contains one directory per \emph{classes} (i.e. per known generator). One directory contains examples that are representative of its class. In a standard release, the {\tt data/samples} directory contains four subdirectories with texts generated by the following generator:
\begin{itemize}
\item \url{http://thatsmathematics.com/mathgen/} (dir {\tt data/samples/Mathgen});
\item \url{https://bitbucket.org/birkenfeld/scigen-physics} (dir {\tt data/samples/Physgen)};
\item \url{http://www.nadovich.com/chris/randprop/} ( dir {\tt data/samples/Propgen)};
\item \url{http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/scigen/} (dir {\tt data/samples/SCIgen)}.
\end{itemize}
New subdirectories can be added. This can be done for two purpose:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Adding a corpus that represents fairly enough a particular field. By setting appropriate threshold, this will flag papers that appeared to be too far from that field.
\item When a generator appears, new samples (pdf) can be added in a new subdirectory (in {\tt data/samples}) containing a representative corpora of the new class.
\end{enumerate}
\subsection{Threshold configuration}
\begin{lstlisting}[language=bash]
# Defining Thresholds for Scigen
Threshold_Scigen 0.48 0.56
\end{lstlisting}
A line starting with {\tt Threshold\_Dirname} is used to define thresholds. Thresholds are needed to take decisions to assigned tested texts to a class. Examples of each class can be found in the directory {\tt Dirname}. There should have one line (i.e. two Thresholds) per classe. These values are 2 real numbers between 0 and 1. The smallest one is use to take the decision to assigned the tested paper (almost certainly) to the class. The second one is used as a threshold for suspicion for containing parts of generated text.
The previous example (concerning Scigen class) has the following meaning. Given distances from the tested text to its nearest neighbour in the set of samples (i.e. texts found in the Scigen dir):
\begin{itemize}
\item If the distance is greater than 0.56, then it is reasonably believable that this is a genuine article.
\item From 0.56 to 0.48, there is a chance that this article or part of this article is Scigen generated.
\item If the distance is less than 0.48, there is a very high chance that this is an automatic Scigen generated article.
\end{itemize}
If new samples are added to the sample folder (i.e new dir), the threshold configuration should also be added, if not the default-threshold values are used (0.48 and 0.56).
\subsection{Path for log files}
\begin{lstlisting}[language=bash]
# Set the default path for log files
Default_log_folder logs/
Default_detail_log_folder detaillogs/
\end{lstlisting}
These lines are use to set the default log folder and a default detail log folder (see section~\ref{detaillog} for more information). In case the path to a log file is not set (no -l parameter), the log file will be saved in the default log folder under the name: {\tt time\_date.xls} (e.g. 09:46 25.02.2015.xls means the check was started at 9:46 on 25/2/2015).
\begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\scriptsize]
INDEX-53.txt is a Scigen 0.34236384 data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen25.txt
INDEX-53.txt is a Physgen 0.47908222 data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen7.txt
INDEX-011.txt is Genuine 0.60918242 data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen41.txt
INDEX-013.txt is Genuine 0.61375975 data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen25.txt
\end{lstlisting}
\subsection{Max-Min text length}
\begin{lstlisting}[language=bash]
# Max_length is the maximum size of a text
Max_length 30000
Min_length 10000
\end{lstlisting}
This set the max(min) length in character (including white space char) for a text to be eligible for classification. This parameter is used in order to avoid miss classification: when an article is too long, this cause the characteristic of the article to becomes too generic and very long paper may be misclassified (without splitting misclassification rate: 0.13\% or 42 misclassification/ 31577 samples). When the article is shorter than Min length, it will be marked as cant classify.
The default value for max length is set at 30000 characters (about 10 pages); a longer text will be split into several part which are tested individually. Default min length is set at 10000 characters.
\section{Make use of detail logging}
\label{detaillog}
The detail log (parameter -d) stores all the distances from the text under test to all other samples in the sample set (i.e. all texts in all directories found at {\tt /data/sample}).
This can be use to get a more detail look at the results.
For example: an article returned with a distant to the nearest neighbour that barely pass the threshold. Turning on the detail log for that article and checking the results may help the decision.
%if it is just a rare incident or the distances to other samples are also suspicious and have a better estimation.
\begin{lstlisting}[basicstyle=\ttfamily\scriptsize]
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen55.txt 0.6821885795569994
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen63.txt 0.6608131367167517
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen36.txt 0.39296257670516693
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen9.txt 0.6679829987841077
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen0.txt 0.35342658461094817
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen47.txt 0.660816573503142
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen52.txt 0.3808927385660057
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen71.txt 0.6897595647595604
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen28.txt 0.38955875898790254
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen60.txt 0.39994884474379633
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen39.txt 0.6868800914402744
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen81.txt 0.5303053819516341
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Propgen/INDEX-17-html.txt 0.7981193467108959
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen65.txt 0.510647010647008
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Propgen/INDEX-53-html.txt 0.7880669668830156
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen5.txt 0.5160079114941755
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen73.txt 0.5115960731657623
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen49.txt 0.5055891144600811
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Propgen/INDEX-86-html.txt 0.7643301386956208
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen96.txt 0.5069873754844876
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Propgen/INDEX-45-html.txt 0.7918353315721742
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Scigen/INDEX-scigen21.txt 0.38484926003355824
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen78.txt 0.6692076400040969
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Propgen/INDEX-0-html.txt 0.7876861141791592
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Mathgen/INDEX-mathgen16.txt 0.682802115990133
INDEX-053.txt data/samples/Physgen/INDEX-physgen10.txt 0.5261174636174665
\end{lstlisting}
\section{Tuning/Setting Thresholds}
Thresholds for the current known generators have been empirically set according to tests presented in this section. These tests involves the computation of the intertextual distance presented in~\cite{FakeDuplication}.
For each generator (Scigen, scigen-physics, Mathgen and propgen) a set of 400 texts is used (i.e: 1600 texts for the whole). For each text the distance to its nearest neighbour in the sample set is computed. The sample is composed of an extra 100 texts per generator (i.e: 400 additional texts). The nearest neighbour is always of the same nature than the tested text and columns 1-2-3-4 of Table~\ref{table1} show statistical information about the observed distances.
A set of 8200 genuine papers is also used. For each genuine text the distance to its nearest fake in the sample set is computed. The sample still being composed of the same 400 texts (100 per generator). For each of the 8200 genuine papers, the nearest fake neighbour is in one of the generated sample group.
The first 2 rows of Table~\ref{table1} show that, for a genuine paper, the minimal distance to the nearest fake is always greater than the maximal distance of the nearest neighbour of a fake.
\begin{table}[ht]
\caption{Mean, min-max distances between papers and theirs nearest neighbour, along with standard deviation and median.}
\label{table1}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|c|c|c|}
%\hline
\hline
& Scigen & scigen-physics & Mathgen & Propgen & Genuine \\ \hline
Min distance to NN& 0.30 & 0.31 & 0.19 & 0.11 & 0.52\\
Max distance to NN& 0.40 & 0.39 & 0.28 & 0.22 & 0.99\\
Mean distance to NN& 0.35 & 0.35 & 0.22 & 0.14 & 0.69\\
Standard deviation & 0.014 & 0.012 & 0.014 & 0.015 & 0.117\\
Median & 0.35 & 0.35 & 0.22 & 0.14 & 0.64\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\paragraph{Scigen}
(\url{http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/scigen/} (dir {\tt data/samples/SCIgen)}) The graph~\ref{scigen} shows the observed distribution for texts having a Scigen text as nearest fake neighbour.
\begin{figure}[htb]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.65\linewidth]{fig/hist_sci.pdf}
\caption{Distribution of distances to the {\emph Scigen} nearest neighbour. In blue for a set of {\emph non-scigen} paper. In red for a set of {\emph scigen} papers}
\label{scigen}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\paragraph{scigen-physics}
\url{https://bitbucket.org/birkenfeld/scigen-physics} (dir {\tt data/samples/Physgen)} The graph~\ref{phygen} shows the observed distribution for texts having a scigen-physics text as nearest fake neighbour.
\begin{figure}[htb]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.65\linewidth]{fig/hist_phy.pdf}
\caption{Distribution of distances to the {\emph scigen-physics} nearest neighbour. In blue for a set of {\emph non-scigen-physics} paper. In red for a set of {\emph scigen-physics} papers}
\label{phygen}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\paragraph{Mathgen}
\url{http://thatsmathematics.com/mathgen/} (dir {\tt data/samples/Mathgen}) The graph~\ref{mathgen} shows the observed distribution for texts having a mathgen text as nearest fake neighbour.
\begin{figure}[htb]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.65\linewidth]{fig/hist_math.pdf}
\caption{Distribution of distances to the \emph{mathgen} nearest neighbour. In blue for a set of \emph{non-mathgen} paper. In red for a set of \emph{mathgen} papers}
\label{mathgen}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\paragraph{propgen}
\url{http://www.nadovich.com/chris/randprop/} (dir {\tt data/samples/Propgen)} The graph~\ref{propgen} shows the observed distribution for texts having a randprop text as nearest fake neighbour.
\begin{figure}[htb]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.65\linewidth]{fig/hist_prop.pdf}
\caption{Distribution of distances to the \emph{randprop} nearest neighbour. In blue for a set of \emph{non-randprop} paper. In red for a set of {\emph randprop} papers}
\label{propgen}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\begin{thebibliography}{widest entry}
\bibitem[1]{FakeDuplication} Cyril Labbé, Dominique Labbé. \emph{Duplicate and fake publications in the scientific literature: how many SCIgen papers in computer science?} Scientometrics 94, no. 1 (2013): 379-396 (http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00641906v2/document).
%\bibitem[label2]{cite_key2} bibliographic information
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}
\documentclass[11pt,a4paper,titlepage]{article}
\begin{document}
\begin{table}[ht]
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|c|c|c|}
%\hline
\hline
& Scigen & Physgen & Mathgen & Propgen & Genuine \\ \hline
Mean distant to NN& 0.3516657439 & 0.3531284423 & 0.2284321961 & 0.1425688279 & 0.6909262827\\
Min distant to NN& 0.3055063737 & 0.3120685957 & 0.1993997783 & 0.1156376126 & 0.5225858277\\
Max distant to NN& 0.4014905379 & 0.3932289760 & 0.2837307114 & 0.2206600904 & 0.9912927374\\
Standard deviation & 0.0144390015 & 0.0120515277 & 0.0143429504 & 0.0157618469 & 0.1170299643\\
Median & 0.3518156669 & 0.3527417268 & 0.2272039843 & 0.140403222 & 0.6424112226\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}
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