Commit 6a20258d by Raphael Maurin

### Add an example for the use of HydroForceEngine

parent d2c02161
 ######################################################################################################################################################################### # Author: Raphael Maurin, raphael.maurin@imft.fr # 04/07/2016 # # Example script to simulate sediment transport from an imposed 1D vertical fluid profile # Make use of HydroForceEngine, which is tailored to be used with a 1D RANS code, solving the fluid momentum balance as a function of the depth to determine u_x^f(z) the vertical fluid profile (vxFluidPY). # # Create a bi-periodic inclined channel with a rough bottom, and deposit a cloud of particles under gravity to form a granular bed. # Apply fluid forces from an imposed fluid profile vxFluidPY through the engine HydroForceEngine # Let evolve the problem to equilibrium and measure the granular depth profiles of particles volume fraction and particle velocity # # The force applied by the fluid on the particles are restricted to drag and buoyancy. To know the exact expressions of the latter (and for any precisions regarding an action of HydroForceEngine), please refer to the documentation of HydroForceEngine and to the c++ source code pkg/common/ForceEngine.cpp and hpp. # ############################################################################################################################################################################ #Import libraries from yade import pack, plot import math import random as rand import numpy as np ## ## Main parameters of the simulation ## #Particles diameterPart = 6e-3 #Diameter of the particles, in meter densPart = 2500 #density of the particles, in kg/m3 phiPartMax = 0.61 #Value of the dense packing solid volume fraction restitCoef = 0.5 #Restitution coefficient of the particles partFrictAngle = atan(0.4) #friction angle of the particles, in radian #fluid densFluidPY = 1000. #Density of the fluid kinematicViscoFluid = 1e-6 #kinematic viscosity of the fluid waterDepth = 20.#Water depth in diameter #Configuration: inclined channel slope = 0.05 #Inclination angle of the channel slope in radian lengthCell = 10 #Streamwise length of the periodic cell, in diameter widthCell = 10 #Spanwise length of the periodic cell, in diameter Nlayer = 10. #nb of layer of particle, in diameter fluidHeight = (Nlayer+waterDepth)*diameterPart #Height of the flow from the bottom of the sample endTime = 10 #Time simulated (in seconds) ## ## Secondary parameters of the simulation ## expoDrag_PY = 3.1 # Richardson Zaki exponent for the hindrance function of the drag force applied to the particles #Discretization of the sample in ndimz wall-normal (z) steps of size dz, between the bottom of the channel and the position of the water free-surface. Should be equal to the length of the imposed fluid profile. Mesh used for HydroForceEngine. ndimz = 900 #Number of cells in the height dz = fluidHeight/(1.0*(ndimz-1)) # Fluid discretization step in the wall-normal direction # Initialization of the main vectors vxFluidPY = np.zeros(ndimz) # Vertical fluid velocity profile: u^f = u_x^f(z) e_x, with x the streamwise direction and z the wall-normal phiPartPY = np.zeros(ndimz) # Vertical particle volume fraction profile vxPartPY = np.zeros(ndimz) # Vertical average particle velocity profile #Geometrical configuration, define useful quantities height = 5*fluidHeight #heigth of the periodic cell, in m (bigger than the fluid height to take into particles jumping above the latter) length = lengthCell*diameterPart #length of the stream, in m width = widthCell*diameterPart #width of the stream, in m groundPosition = height/4.0 #Definition of the position of the ground, in m gravityVector = Vector3(9.81*sin(slope),0.0,-9.81*cos(slope)) #Gravity vector to consider a channel inclined with slope angle 'slope' gravityVectorApplied = Vector3(0.0,0.0,-9.81*cos(slope)) #Applied gravity for buoyancy (no x contribution in turbulent cases) #Particles contact law/material parameters maxPressure = (densPart-densFluidPY)*phiPartMax*Nlayer*diameterPart*abs(gravityVector[2]) #Estimated max particle pressure from the static load normalStiffness = maxPressure*diameterPart*1e4 #Evaluate the minimal normal stiffness to be in the rigid particle limit (cf Roux and Combe 2002) youngMod = normalStiffness/diameterPart #Young modulus of the particles from the stiffness wanted. poissonRatio = 0.5 #poisson's ratio of the particles. Classical values, does not have much influence O.materials.append(ViscElMat(en=restitCoef, et=0., young=youngMod, poisson=poissonRatio, density=densPart, frictionAngle=partFrictAngle, label='Mat')) ######################## ## FRAMEWORK CREATION ## ######################## #Definition of the semi-periodic cell O.periodic = True O.cell.setBox(length,width,height) # Reference walls: build two planes at the ground and free-surface to have a reference for the eyes in the 3D view lowPlane = box(center= (length/2.0, width/2.0,groundPosition),extents=(200,200,0),fixed=True,wire=False,color = (0.,1.,0.),material = 'Mat') WaterSurface = box(center= (length/2.0, width/2.0,groundPosition+fluidHeight),extents=(2000,width/2.0,0),fixed=True,wire=False,color = (0,0,1),material = 'Mat',mask = 0) O.bodies.append([lowPlane,WaterSurface]) #add to simulation # Regular arrangement of spheres sticked at the bottom with random height L = range(0,int(length/(diameterPart))) #The length is divided in particle diameter W = range(0,int(width/(diameterPart))) #The width is divided in particle diameter for x in L: #loop creating a set of sphere sticked at the bottom with a (uniform) random altitude comprised between 0.5 (diameter/12) and 5.5mm (11diameter/12) with steps of 0.5mm. The repartition along z is made around groundPosition. for y in W: n = rand.randrange(0,12,1)/12.0*diameterPart #Define a number between 0 and 11/12 diameter with steps of 1/12 diameter (0.5mm in the experiment) O.bodies.append(sphere((x*diameterPart, y*diameterPart,groundPosition - 11*diameterPart/12.0/2.0 + n),diameterPart/2.,color=(0,0,0),fixed = True,material = 'Mat')) #Create a loose cloud of particle inside the cell partCloud = pack.SpherePack() partVolume = pi/6.*pow(diameterPart,3) #Volume of a particle partNumber = int(Nlayer*phiPartMax*diameterPart*length*width/partVolume) #Volume of beads to obtain Nlayer layers of particles partCloud.makeCloud(minCorner=(0,0.,groundPosition+diameterPart),maxCorner=(length,width,groundPosition+fluidHeight),rRelFuzz=0., rMean=diameterPart/2.0, num = partNumber) partCloud.toSimulation(material='Mat') #Send this packing to simulation with material Mat #Evaluate the deposition time considering the free-fall time of the highest particle to the ground depoTime = sqrt(fluidHeight*2/abs(gravityVector[2])) # Collect the ids of the spheres which are dynamic to add a fluid force through HydroForceEngines idApplyForce = [] for b in O.bodies: if isinstance(b.shape,Sphere) and b.dynamic: idApplyForce+=[b.id] ######################### #### SIMULATION LOOP##### ######################### O.engines = [ # Reset the forces ForceResetter(), # Detect the potential contacts InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb(), Bo1_Wall_Aabb(),Bo1_Facet_Aabb(),Bo1_Box_Aabb()],label='contactDetection',allowBiggerThanPeriod = True), # Calculate the different interactions InteractionLoop( [Ig2_Sphere_Sphere_ScGeom(), Ig2_Box_Sphere_ScGeom()], [Ip2_ViscElMat_ViscElMat_ViscElPhys()], [Law2_ScGeom_ViscElPhys_Basic()] ,label = 'interactionLoop'), #Apply an hydrodynamic force to the particles HydroForceEngine(densFluid = densFluidPY,viscoDyn = kinematicViscoFluid*densFluidPY,zRef = groundPosition,gravity = gravityVectorApplied,deltaZ = dz,expoRZ = expoDrag_PY,lift = False,nCell = ndimz,vCell = length*width*dz ,vxFluid = vxFluidPY,phiPart = phiPartPY,vxPart = vxPartPY,ids = idApplyForce, label = 'hydroEngine', dead = True), #Measurement, output files PyRunner(command = 'measure()', virtPeriod = 0.1, label = 'measurement', dead = True), # Check if the packing is stabilized, if yes activate the hydro force on the grains and the slope. PyRunner(command='gravityDeposition(depoTime)',virtPeriod = 0.01,label = 'gravDepo'), #GlobalStiffnessTimeStepper, determine the time step GlobalStiffnessTimeStepper(defaultDt = 1e-4, viscEl = True,timestepSafetyCoefficient = 0.7, label = 'GSTS'), # Integrate the equation and calculate the new position/velocities... NewtonIntegrator(damping=0.2, gravity=gravityVector, label='newtonIntegr') ] #save the initial configuration to be able to recharge the simulation starting configuration easily O.saveTmp() #run O.run() #################################################################################################################################### #################################################### FUNCTION DEFINITION ######################################################### #################################################################################################################################### ###### ###### ### LET THE TIME FOR THE GRAVITY DEPOSITION AND ACTIVATE THE FLUID AT THE END ### ###### ###### def gravityDeposition(lim): if O.time=endTime: print('\n End of the simulation, simulated {0}s as required !\n '.format(endTime)) O.pause() #Z scale used for the possible plot at the end global zAxis for i in range(0,ndimz): zAxis[i] = i*dz/diameterPart ## Paste the following (uncommented) code in the console at the end of the simulation to observe the shape of the granular depth profiles (solid volume fraction and velocity) #import matplotlib.pyplot as pyp #pyp.figure('solid volume fraction profile') #pyp.plot(phiPartPY,zAxis,'g') #pyp.xlabel(r'$\phi$') #pyp.ylabel(r'$z/d$') #pyp.figure('streamwise particle velocity profile') #pyp.plot(vxPartPY,zAxis,'g') #pyp.xlabel(r'') #pyp.ylabel(r'$z/d$') #pyp.show() #Plot the dimensionless sediment transport rate as a function of time during the simulation plot.plots={'time':('SedimentRate')} plot.plot() ################ ########################################## #Imposed fluid profile, corresponding to a Shields number 0.5 vxFluidPY = np.array([ 0. , 0.06156562, 0.08728988, 0.10283756, 0.11005262, 0.11059876, 0.1060113 , 0.0976961 , 0.08701183, 0.07527384, 0.06375715, 0.05362684, 0.04587625, 0.04124045, 0.04014932, 0.04265518, 0.04835575, 0.05637364, 0.06555057, 0.07466258, 0.0825892 , 0.08848402, 0.09180331, 0.09234952, 0.09026192, 0.08598644, 0.08023121, 0.07377648, 0.0673878 , 0.06174271, 0.05740186, 0.0547775 , 0.05407727, 0.05527346, 0.05813167, 0.0622459 , 0.06708855, 0.07204081, 0.07651257, 0.07999516, 0.08215522, 0.08283083, 0.08204372, 0.07996273, 0.07689339, 0.0732465 , 0.06949481, 0.06610862, 0.06347541, 0.06185502, 0.0613583 , 0.06194208, 0.06343303, 0.0655741 , 0.06804706, 0.07051492, 0.0726754 , 0.07429343, 0.07521449, 0.07537433, 0.07479194, 0.07357723, 0.07192908, 0.07010514, 0.06839215, 0.06704851, 0.06626627, 0.06614762, 0.06669344, 0.06779834, 0.06927958, 0.07091005, 0.07245458, 0.07369861, 0.07446029, 0.07462772, 0.07419583, 0.07325704, 0.07196604, 0.07049793, 0.06903213, 0.06774085, 0.06677561, 0.0662449 , 0.06619538, 0.06661213, 0.06742787, 0.0685343 , 0.06978656, 0.07102537, 0.07210075, 0.07289378, 0.07334036, 0.07343889, 0.07323677, 0.07280684, 0.0722337 , 0.07160383, 0.07099545, 0.07047215, 0.07007524, 0.06982274, 0.06971082, 0.06971833, 0.06980796, 0.06993805, 0.07007409, 0.07019433, 0.07028775, 0.07034303, 0.07035078, 0.07031745, 0.07026673, 0.07022685, 0.070222 , 0.07026871, 0.07037337, 0.0705376 , 0.07075427, 0.07100814, 0.07128164, 0.07155703, 0.07182318, 0.07207437, 0.07230019, 0.0724788 , 0.0725801 , 0.07257863, 0.07245956, 0.07222669, 0.07189895, 0.07150785, 0.07108934, 0.07068479, 0.07033428, 0.0700743 , 0.06993614, 0.06994256, 0.07010162, 0.07040221, 0.07081663, 0.07130815, 0.07183653, 0.07236057, 0.0728381 , 0.07323606, 0.07353095, 0.07371097, 0.0737761 , 0.07373514, 0.07360549, 0.073415 , 0.07319872, 0.07299079, 0.07282058, 0.07271034, 0.07267235, 0.07270862, 0.07281215, 0.07297214, 0.07317416, 0.07340123, 0.07363392, 0.07385621, 0.07405428, 0.07421823, 0.07434827, 0.07445663, 0.07456325, 0.07469148, 0.07486482, 0.07510363, 0.0754249 , 0.07583499, 0.0763238 , 0.07687 , 0.07744048, 0.07799326, 0.07848547, 0.07887646, 0.07913544, 0.07924846, 0.07921931, 0.07907331, 0.07885561, 0.07862464, 0.07844374, 0.07837516, 0.07847163, 0.0787705 , 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2.58922345, 2.59014892, 2.59106972, 2.59198587, 2.59289739, 2.5938043 , 2.59470662, 2.59560436, 2.59649755, 2.5973862 , 2.59827033, 2.59914996, 2.60002511, 2.60089579, 2.60176202, 2.60262382, 2.6034812 , 2.60433419, 2.60518279, 2.60602703, 2.60686692, 2.60770247, 2.60853371, 2.60936065, 2.6101833 , 2.61100168, 2.6118158 , 2.61262569, 2.61343135, 2.6142328 , 2.61503005, 2.61582313, 2.61661203, 2.61739678, 2.6181774 , 2.61895388, 2.61972626, 2.62049454, 2.62125873, 2.62201885, 2.62277492, 2.62352694, 2.62427492, 2.62501889, 2.62575884, 2.62649481, 2.62722678, 2.62795479, 2.62867884, 2.62939894, 2.6301151 , 2.63082734, 2.63153566, 2.63224009, 2.63294062, 2.63363727, 2.63433004, 2.63501896, 2.63570404, 2.63638527, 2.63706267, 2.63773625, 2.63840603, 2.639072 , 2.63973419, 2.64039259, 2.64104723, 2.6416981 , 2.64234522, 2.64298859, 2.64362823, 2.64426414, 2.64489633, 2.64552481, 2.64614958, 2.64677067, 2.64738806, 2.64800178, 2.64861182, 2.6492182 , 2.64982092, 2.65041999, 2.65101542, 2.6516072 , 2.65219536, 2.6527799 , 2.65336081, 2.65393812, 2.65451182, 2.65508192, 2.65564842, 2.65621134, 2.65677067, 2.65732642, 2.6578786 , 2.65842722, 2.65897226, 2.65951375, 2.66005168, 2.66058606, 2.6611169 , 2.66164419, 2.66216794, 2.66268815, 2.66320484, 2.66371799, 2.66422761, 2.66473371, 2.66523629, 2.66573534, 2.66623088, 2.66672291, 2.66721142, 2.66769641, 2.6681779 , 2.66865588, 2.66913034, 2.6696013 , 2.67006875, 2.67053269, 2.67099312, 2.67145005, 2.67190346, 2.67235337, 2.67279976, 2.67324264, 2.67368201, 2.67411786, 2.6745502 , 2.67497901, 2.6754043 , 2.67582607, 2.67624431, 2.67665901, 2.67707018, 2.6774778 , 2.67788188, 2.67828241, 2.67867939, 2.6790728 , 2.67946264, 2.67984891, 2.6802316 , 2.6806107 , 2.68098621, 2.68135811, 2.6817264 , 2.68209106, 2.6824521 , 2.68280949, 2.68316323, 2.6835133 , 2.6838597 , 2.68420241, 2.68454142, 2.68487671, 2.68520828, 2.6855361 , 2.68586015, 2.68618044, 2.68649692, 2.68680959, 2.68711843, 2.68742342, 2.68772453, 2.68802174, 2.68831504, 2.68860439, 2.68888977, 2.68917115, 2.6894485 , 2.6897218 , 2.689991 , 2.69025609, 2.69051701, 2.69077374, 2.69102624, 2.69127446, 2.69151836, 2.69175789, 2.69199301, 2.69222365, 2.69244977, 2.6926713 , 2.69288819, 2.69310035, 2.69330773, 2.69351023, 2.69370778, 2.69390028, 2.69408764, 2.69426974, 2.69444647, 2.6946177 , 2.69478329, 2.69494307, 2.69509687, 2.69524449, 2.69538571, 2.69552028, 2.69564788, 2.69576818, 2.69588076, 2.6959851 , 2.69608056, 2.6961663 , 2.69624114, 2.6963033 , 2.69634954, 2.69637016, 2.69633447, 2.69633447]) if ndimz!=len(vxFluidPY): print '\n Bug: ndimz should necessarily be equal to the length of the imposed fluid profile vxFluidPY !\n' exit()
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